Fistulation and Cannulation of Goat Single Stage Technique Using Locally Improvised Cannula
There is a great need presently for cannulation in small ruminants either for investigation of digestion as in evaluation of feed or collection of ruminal fluids, and this could be performed by many types of cannulae and techniques. The materials used here were fabricated (improvision) of cannula for goat and an adopted technique for its implantation. The device was adapted to allow sampling of entire ruminal contents via cannulae with similar diameters, which tightly sealed within ruminal fistula to ensure cleaner, achieve easier nursing of operated animals, and maintain normal ruminal environment. The device was applied into the goat by one-stage operation. It was successfully used in bucks for 10 months without complications in this experiment. Accordingly, this will encourage researchers to perform long-term studies of ruminal environment in small ruminants.
Four indigenous breeds (Maradi) of goats were cannulated using an improvised cannula from local materials. One among these breeds was not fasted and water not withdrawn, but the other three were fasted for 24 hours and water withdrawn for 12 hours to minimize contamination by the ruminal content. The cannula was of 3cm in diameter weighing 78gms implanted to all the four. Aseptic measures were observed to prevent contamination and complication. Xylazine, diazepam and local aneasthetic (xylocaine) were used to sedate and desensitize the surgical site using inverted L block infiltration of the left flank. The one that was not fasted did not survive because of the high level of contamination from the ruminal content, but the three survived the surgery with one casualty of death due to poor management 48 hours post surgery. The remaining two survived without complication, thus, healing was by first intention, no leaking of ruminal content and suture was removed within 10 days post surgery. After four months post surgery one of the goats’ ruminal content started leaking at close observation. It was discovered to be due to insertion of the left horn around the cannula which succeeded in widening the area leading to the leakage even though it was not copious.