Publisher: Bachudo Science Co. Ltd

Physico-Chemical Properties, Energy, Mineral, Vitamin and Sensory Evaluation of Wheat-Based Bread Supplemented With Legume, Root, Tuber and Plantain Flour

U. S. Onoja, Dibua U. M. E, J. I. Eze, G. E. Odo
KEYWORDS: Physico-chemical properties, sensory attributes breads, composites, fermentation, nutrient density.


The chemical and physical properties, mineral, vitamin and sensory evaluation of breads based on wheat supplemented with legume, tuber, root and plantain flour were examined. The food grains were picked clean, hammer milled into flour (40mm mesh screen) and put in a polyethylene bag. Root, tuber and plantain were first peeled, sliced, sun-dried and milled into flour (40mm mesh screen) and also put in polyethylene bag. The flour batches were separately put in a container and were subjected to natural fermentation in de-ionized water in the ratio of 1:3 (w/v) at 28 ± 20C for 24 hours as pilot studies indicated that fermenting beyond this period produced offensive odour in tuber, root and plantain. The fermented samples were dried at 55 ± 20C in a drought air oven (Gallenkamp BS Model 250 Size 2 UK), hammer milled into fine flour (70mm mesh screen) and stored in a refrigerator until used for the chemical analysis and production of biscuits. The composites were formulated thus: wheat flour, 70% while legume, tuber, root and plantain supplied 25%, 5%, 3% and 2%, respectively, depending on the blend. The 100% wheat flour served as the control. The nutrient content, physical properties and the organoleptic attributes of the breads were evaluated using standard techniques. The test breads had high nutrient content that ranged from protein (13.86 – 16.40%), carbohydrate (69.70 – 74.60%), ash (4.64 - 5.80%), fat (2.10 - 2.40%), fibre (5.56 – 6.96%) and energy (358.74 - 383.80 kilocalories. The control had 406.54 kilocalories. Mineral levels were low except for calcium, phosphorus, potassium and sodium that ranged from (73.20 – 77.30mg, 75.40 – 114.00mg, 168.30 – 176.20mg and 716.30 – 726.26mg, respectively). The vitamin values were low relative to the control except the niacin. The physical parameters indicated that fermentation and type of supplements had negative effect (P≥0.05) on the weight and width of the test breads relative to the control. On the other hand, it did not markedly affect proofing ability, oven spring and specific volume of the experimental breads. The sensory analysis showed that all the test breads had high sensory ratings for the evaluated attributes that compared favourably with the wheat flour bread except for the breads containing AYB and PP that were much lower. The findings of the present study showed that wheat flour breads supplemented with legume, root, tuber and plantain flour produced acceptable and high nutrient density breads than 100% wheat flour breads. 

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