Publisher: Chemical Society of Nigeria

Effects of Degumming and Bleaching On Physicochemial Properties of Crude Sunflower Oil.

A. A. Oshodi, A. S. Abitogun
KEYWORDS: Sunflower, oil, extraction, degumming, bleaching, fatty acid.

ABSTRACT:

The  oil  sample  used  for  this  study  was  obtained  from  sunflower  seeds  by  solvent  extraction;  and  the crude  oil  obtained  was  degummed  and  bleached.  The  oil  samples  were  assessed  for  their physicochemical  parameters  and  fatty  acid  composition.  The  specific  gravity  of  all  samples  was  0.92, while  the  refractive  index  range  values  were  1.47-1.48.  The  colour  ranges  between  7-18  units,  flash,  fire, smoke  and  turbidity  points  were  in  the  range  value  of  335-339,  339-342,  233-235  0C  and  5-8jtu respectively.  The  free  fatty  acid  ranged  between  0.51-1.40(%  linoleic  acid),  acid  value  1.02-3.09(% linoleic  acid),  saponification  values  188.64-197.43  mg  KOH/g  oil,  peroxide  value  12.60-20.40 Meq.peroxide/kg,  and  iodine  value  131.60-145.87  wjs.  The  yield  was  41.30%.  The  fatty  acid  composition was  determined  using  gas  chromatography.  The  fatty  acids  detected  in  the  oil  samples  were  myristic, palmitic,  palmtoleic,  stearic,  oleic,  linoleic,  linoleric  and  arachidic  acids.  Linoleic  acid  dominates  with range  values  of  51.65-67.66  %/100g.  The  result  indicated  among  others,  the  oil  contains  high  degree  of unsaturation,  and  the  quality  characteristics  of  the  oil  improve  upon  treatment  with  phosphoric  acid  and bleaching earth. 


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