Publisher: Chemical Society of Nigeria

Characterization of Cola Starch Citrate ; A Potential Pharmaceutical / Industrial Starch

M. O. Omojola, M. O. Afolayan, A. B. Adebiyi, J. O. Orijajogun, A. P Onwualu
KEYWORDS: Cola nitida rubra, starch citrate, photomicrograph, physicochemical properties, swelling, modification


Starch extracted from the nuts of cola nitida rubra was modified chemically to produce the citrate derivative. The cola starch citrate which was prepared by reacting starch previously extracted from kolanuts with citric acid at elevated temperatures was found to be slightly off – white`in colour, crystalline and a non – hygroscopic powder which gave a percentage yield of 78.2 % from the starting material. The starch citrate prepared was insoluble in water and had a swelling capacity of 14.32 at 80 OC in water. It did not gelatinize when heated at 100 OC in water for 30 min. It has a browning temperature of 227.3 – 233.8 OC, charring temperature of 252.7 – 261.8 OC, water absorption capacity of 88.7 %, pH of 4.88, foam and emulsion capacities of 4.5 % and 7.52 % respectively. Proximate analysis (in %) was found to be: fat – 2.0, ash – 1.0, protein – 0.021, moisture – 10.83, crude fibre – 0.67 and carbohydrates – 85.479. The photomicrograph shows that the starch citrate granule has an oval shape, generally small to medium sized (sizes ranging from 5 – 20 μm) with occasional large ones. Comparison of the physicochemical properties of the native cola starch with the citrate derivative indicates that it might be a better disintegrant than native cola starch in tablet formulations and also suitable for use in other industries.

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