Publisher: Nigerian Society For Microbiology

Incidence of Diarrhea and Antibiotic Resistance Profiles of Enteric Bacteria In HIV Positive Individuals

Ezeonu, I. M., Ugwu, K. O.
KEYWORDS: HIV/AIDS; enterobacteria; diarrhea; antibiotics; resistance

ABSTRACT:

This study investigated the incidence of diarrhea among HIV seropositive individuals, the enterobacterial species associated with HIV seropositivity and the antibiotic resistance profiles of the bacteria. The most frequently isolated organism was E. coli, recovered from 65 (22%) of the samples, followed by Proteus, with a frequency of 53 (18%) representing P. vulgaris 38 (13%) and P. mirabilis 15 (5%). The next in occurrence was Klebsiella pneumoniae with a frequency of 49 (17%). The genus Shigella had overall occurrence of 10% {S. dysenteraie (8%) and S. flexneri (2%)}. Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus had occurrences of 10% and 9%, respectively, while Salmonella paratyphi, S. typhi, Enterococcus faecalis and Enterobacter aerogenes had occurrences of 4%, 2.4%, 4%, and 3%, respectively. Citrobacter freundi had an occurrence of only 0.3%. Over 75% of each bacterial type isolated was from individuals with CD4 counts less than 400 cells/mm3. The overall incidence of diarrhea was 27% and about 66% of these cases were in individuals with CD4 counts below 100. The bacteria predominantly associated with diarrhea were E. coli > Klebsiella pneumoniae > Shigella dystenteriae and Proteus vulgaris. Over 40% of the isolates were resistant to erythromycin, chloramphenicol, ampicillin, augmentin and cotrimoxazole (trimethoprimsulfamethoxazole;TMP-SMX). Conversely, there was less than 8% resistance to ciprofloxacin, pefloxacin and ofloxacin.



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