In-Vitro Evaluation of Antibacterial Activity of Ethanolic and Aqueous Extracts of Ficus Exasperata Vahl (MORACEAE) Leaves
The in-vitro evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Ficus exasperata leaves against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Salmonella typhimurium was investigated using standard microbiological methods. The extracts exhibited antibacterial activities against the tested bacteria. The phytochemical constituents of the extracts were found to include flavonoids, saponins, polyphenols, anthraquinones and tannins. Quantitative parameters of extracts presented weight loss on drying as 8.73±0.06, ethanolic and aqueous extractive values were 3.11±0.22 and 6.45±0.08 respectively. The total ash value was 32.59±0.12, and values for acid insoluble ash and water insoluble ash were 16.54±0.03 and 14.87±0.14 respectively. Ethanolic extract presented the highest anti-Streptococcus pyogenes activity compared to the aqueous extract at MIC 90% with mean value (0.965-2.72) at 1.41 mg/ml. It showed high antimicrobial action against Gram-positive strains and was also effective against all other bacterial strains tested. The activities of the extracts observed in this study, justifies the ethnomedical use of this plant as an alternative or complementary drug for the treatment of infections caused by these organisms.