In Vitro Activity of Some Plant Leaves Extracts Against Dematiaceous Fungi isolated From The Environment
The antifungal activity of crude leaves extracts of Aloe vera, Carica papaya, Eupatorium odoratum and Mitracarpus villosus were investigated on dematiaceous fungi previously isolated from natural sources using agar-well diffusion method. The isolates included: Alternaria alternata, Exophiala jeanselmei; Exophiala werneckii; Curvularia lunata; Deschlera biseptate; Wangiella dermatitidis, Phialaphora verrucosa, Xylohypha bantiana and Cladosporium carrionii. The plants were selected based on their ethno medical uses. The minimum inhibitory and minimum fungicidal concentrations of the leaves extracts were determined using two fold serial dilution method at concentrations 400 mg/ml to 50 mg/ml. The activity index was determined using the ratio of the tested extract and the standard antifungal (Ketconazole). The result showed variable pattern of susceptibility. The extracts were active against most of the tested organism. The activity of the ethanol extracts was higher than that of the aqueous extracts. The ethanol extracts of Carica papaya and Eupatorium odoratum had the highest inhibition zone diameter on Xylohypha bantiana ((23 ± 0.81mm) and Alternaria alternata (23 ± 0.81mm) respectively. Wangiella dermatitidis was generally less susceptible to the plant extract than other isolates. The inhibiting effects differed significantly among the extracts and control at p ≤0.05 with the exception of susceptibility of Xylohypha bantiana and Alternaria alternata to Carica papaya and Eupatorium odoratum respectively (p≥0.05).