The Effects of Medicinal Plant Extracts On Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase Producing Bacterial isolates
A total of 602 gram negative bacterial isolates comprising, 294 Escherichia coli,186 Klebsiella species and 122 Pseudomonas aeruginosa were collected from 3 tertiary health institutions in the State to study the effects of medicinal plant extracts on ESβL – producing bacteria. The ESβL – positive isolates were subjected to antibacterial susceptibility test using medicinal plant extracts at different concentrations. Five medicinal plants (Allium sativum, Ocimum gratissimum, Vernonia amygdalina, Garcinia kola and Xylopi aaethiopica)were tested using the well in agar (Gel diffusion) technique. A total of 174 (28.9%) isolates comprising 100 Escherichia coli, 44 Klebsiella species and 30 Pseudomonas aeruginosa were ESβL– positive. The findings showed that Xyllopia aethiopica extract inhibited growth of 80% Escherichia coli, 30% Klebsiella species and 20% Pseudomonas aeruginosa aeruginosa. Ocimum gratissimum extract inhibited growth of 70% Escherichia coli, 60% Klebsiell aspecies and 50% Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Allium sativum extract inhibited growth of 60% Escherichia coli, 30% Klebsiella species and 20% Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Garcinia kola extract inhibited growth of 20% Escherichia coli, 10% Klebsiella species and 20% Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Vernonia amygdalina extract inhibited growth of20% Klebsiellaspecies and 20% Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This study has shown that these medicinal plant extracts possess active ingredients capable of inhibiting growth of ESβL– producing bacteria, therefore they are likely to yield raw materials that could be used to produce novel antibiotics which will be used to treat ESβL and MAR – bacterial infections.