The Implication of Climate Change On Food Security In Nigeria
Climate Change has a lot of implications on food security in Nigeria. It also constitutes threats to global food security. Food security encompasses food availability, food accessibility and food utilization. Food security is diminished when food systems are stressed, such stress may be induced by a range of factors in addition to climate change and non availability of food. Climate change may affect food systems in several ways ranging from direct effects on crop production, changes in rainfall leading to drought or flooding, warmer or cooler temperature which leads to changes in the length of season, changes in food prices and food supply in the market. The socio-economic and bio-physical factors affecting food systems and food security reduce their vulnerability to climate change. Improved systems of food production, food distribution and economic access contributes to food systems adapted to cope with climate change, but in adopting such changes it is important to ensure that it contribute to sustainability. Agriculture is a major contributor of the greenhouse gases methane and nitrous oxide so that regionally derived policies promoting adapted food systems need to mitigate climate change. The paper examines how climate change constitutes a threat to food security as it impacts on natural systems and resources through erratic rainfall patterns, heightened temperature and susceptibility to pest and disease outbreaks hence decreasing crop yields and consequently increased hunger. The implications of the climate change on food security in Nigeria will be highlighted. . The paper will further examine measures needed to put in place in order to achieve improved agricultural productivity. It is believed that, putting this in place, mitigation strategies can be attained and food security achieved especially in Nigeria that is vulnerable to climatic change. To this end, the paper recommends among others the need to strengthen the resilience of the crop production systems, improving human adaptive capacity and developing an early warning system based on extended range weather forecasting.